According to the results found in all our secondary school there are relationships between chaired by the humiliation and abuse of power. This problem is signaled by a significant proportion of secondary school students throughout the state either as victims, perpetrators or observers, and by the teachers themselves, which in itself refutes one of the myths discussed, that of the absence of the phenomenon (see Table 1). The ways in which that abuse of power is exercised are very different, reaching more than a third of the three thousand students studied humiliation through the word, as insults and offensive nicknames, sometimes behind the target of aggression. Others are also attacks through their properties, especially hiding them, as a fifth of the students points or by social exclusion, which consistently experience up to 15% of participants either to be subtly ignored by peers or explicitly not allowed to join the group or participate in an activity. So much less frequently, they are physical attacks, threats and sexual harassment.
The consequences of abuse for abuse of power
For the victim, the most immediate consequence of abuse is fear. Sixty-one percent of those who are afraid to go to school pointing to his peers as the main source of their temor8. Moreover, far from the topic of hardening they would get, many studies document that victimized boys and girls have lower self-esteem than their peers and may show symptoms of depression, anxiety or loneliness, and PTSD.
It was also found that victims of abuse show more psychosomatic problems (eg, unwell, nervous, with headache, stomach) than their peers. That experience, and the fear it causes, can also lead to not want to go to school, not to participate in classroom activities, or even absenteeism real10-11. An extreme consequence of victimization at school is suicide. In other countries, eg Norway and Britain, had already been reported in the media of self-immolations, in all likelihood as a result of severe abuse by peers. Jokin suicide, allegedly linked to the phenomenon, the first case is widely known in Spain, perhaps after other less obvious cases. Even in the absence of the end result, some victims have frequent thoughts of suicide as a direct effect of maltrato12.
Existing data about long-term consequences go against what some consider “strengthening the character”, citing rather a clear decline in self-esteem, insecurity in interpersonal relationships and disturbing memories and nightmares frecuentes10-11,13. Social exclusion, whether actively (not fail to participate openly) or passive (ignore), it seems to lead to these negative effects so more marked than other forms of abuse. Along with the effects of the abuse suffered in the short term, they are the reason for taking this kind of abuse very seriously and not downplay calling it “kid stuff”, “and it will happen.”
With regard to offenders, a very present, both folk psychology as a science, the idea is the vicious circle: if bully others, is that what children have learned, often noting the aggressive action of (one of) his parents, leading to develop a personality upset about aggression, to take you most likely to abuse his family, and end up as criminal.
According Farrington (1993) parents who were bullies in school, tended to have children who also were. But in his study this only occurs in 16% of parents, while 84% of those parents had victimized children not in school. In addition, 5.5% of parents without that school experience had also abused children, all of them more than convincing to show that there is no direct cause-effect data. What seems a common outcome, as in the case of exposure to violence in the media, is an increase in tolerance to these situations of intolerance, domination and submission thinking that abuse of inequality is natural. But you may also come to regret what they did in their school years.